族群源起

The population is around 7,275 people. Each tribe has unique life customs and traditional conventions. As they believe the concept of Utux, strict gaya/waya living law system was derived and developed many abundant cultures, such as face tattoo, hunting, weaving, music, language, song, and dance. Seediq sees Sisin as spiritual bird that they decide the hunting and marriage depending on the humming and direction of Sisin.

Seediq was originated from Truwan, around Chunyang Hot Springs, Renai Township of today. Central and eastern Taichung was there living areas, among Atayal of the north and Bunun of the south. From constant moving, two major tribes were formed, East Seediq and West Seedig with the boundary of Central Mountain. East Seediq distributed in the mountain of Hualian, in today's Xiuling Township, Wanrong Township, and Choushi Township. West Seediq lived in today's Renai Township, Nantou County. They built 7 villages and 12 groups in the upstream of Zhoushui River.

"Seediq was long being categorized as Atayal. To respect the tribe, on April 23rd, 2008, Seediq was officially being recognized as an independent aboriginal tribe."

Distribute in the mountain areas of central and northern Taiwan, including the northern area from Puli to Hualian. The population is about 81,848 people (as to April 2011). The traditional live of Atayal tribe was hunting and burn agriculture. The weaving techniques are well-developed that the patterns are complicated and delicate. Red symbolizes blood, energetic, and avoids evil. They love red apparels.

The social organization focuses on ancestor spirit ritual, which is the most important ceremony. The dancing and singing activities feature Jew's harp and Jew's harp dance.

Distribute in the Chilai Plain of northern Hualian to the coastal plain and hills of Taitung and Hengchun Pennisula. The population is 188,797. It is the aboriginal tribe with the most population. The traditional social system is matriarchal society. Men lived in their wives house after marriage. Women took responsibilities on the family and relatives matters and properties. However, important matters, such as marriage and property distribution should be co-decided by the married maternal uncle. Public affairs, such as politics, laws, wars, and religions, were handled by men according to the age hierarchy. Traditional ritual was harvest festival which the important meaning is the new membership of men reaching a certain age.

Distribute north from Dawu Mountain, south to Henchun, West to Fengliao, East to the sides of Central Mountain of Taima Village, Taitung. The population is nearly 90,811 (as to April 2011). Traditional nobles were the leaders of politic, military, even religion. It was a self-ruled sector. As the population is large and the blood relationship is wide, some district has a few nobles leading several tribes as the result of incestuous alliances. Glass beads, ironware, and silverware are valuable items. Traditional clay sculpture and pole carving, snack pattern and human head pattern symbolize the majestic status of the noble.

Distribute in Central Mountain 1000 to 2000 meters above sea level as far as Namasia District and Hairui Township. The main area is in Nantou County. The population is about 52,824 people (as to April 2011). The society is patriarchal society. Non-related cohabitants are even included in the household; therefore, the traditional families are large. The rituals go along with the sowing of the millet, grass weeding, and harvest. The "praying for millet harvest" song sang in weeding ritual are the most magnificent with eight choruses. "Ear slapping ritual" is the most important one for the men in the tribe.

Distribute in the south of Taitung rift valley. It ruled 72 groups in the east during its strongest period. Now it has a population of 12,357 people (as to April 2011). The tribe has eight groups; therefore, it is also called "Eight-Group Tribe." Due to the different original legendary, the tribe can be divided into Beinan Tribe originated from bamboo and Chiben Tribe originated from stone. In the traditional society, the oldest daughter inherits the house while the men organize in age hierarchy. Men Community Center is the premise for politic and education. Single men must live in the Center to accept military training for defending the tribe and they are divided into several age hierarchy according to the age.

Distribute in Maolin Township, Kaohsiung, Wutai Township, Pingtung, and Tunghsin Village, Taitung. It has a population of 12,183 people (as to April 2011). Traditionally, the society was divided into noble and common people. The noble has the advantages of blood and economical privilege to own lands, while common people develop their personal leading ability, agricultural harvest, and marriage to increase their status. The oldest son inherits the family.

Distribute mostly in Alishan Township, Chiayi County and some live in Xinyi Township, Nantou County, Taoyuan and Namasia Township, Kaohsiung. Now they have 6,840 people (as to April 2011). It has strict patriarchal society and united political organization of large and small groups. Men Community Center, called "Kuba," is the center of tribe affairs and rituals. Teenagers before marriage should live here to accept training. Women are forbid to enter. The most important ritual in the tribe is "war festival." The rituals of Center remolding, cut sacred tree, welcoming spirits, entertain spirits, and sending away spirits are complicated. This tribe is famous for the music and temple.

Mainly distribute in Nanzhuan and Shitan Township, Miaoli County and Wufeng Township, Hsinchu County. The population is 6,019 people (as to April 2011). The society is patriarchal. Each group has its totem symbolization. During Qing Dynasty, they converted the last name to Han last name as "Feng," "Ri," and "Xia" derived from the totem. Pastaai is the most important ritual and it is the essential of the songs and dances in the tribe. It locates near to Atayal, which influences its material cultural.

Distribute in Lanyu, Taitung. It is the only ocean tribe in Taiwan. It has 3,956 people (as to April 2011) and 6 villages on the island. As it has independent living environment, it has the most completed preserved traditional culture. The disputes among tribes are settled by the relatives. The society activities are patriarchal and fishery groups. The material culture is diverse with features in carved boats, silverware, and clay pots. The traditional underground dwells are warm in the winter time and cool in the summer time. The rituals are coped with catching flying fish, which is seen as the sacred animal. The hair dance performed by the women is unique while the men present power and beauty with warrior dance.

Distribute in Yuchi and Shuili Township, Nantou County. It has a population of 704 people (as to April 2011). The legend has it that the ancestor of Thao moved to Sun Moon Lake as they were chasing the white deer. It is a patriarchal society and deeply influenced by Han culture with the original traditions still exist. An ancestor spirit basket is hanged on the left side wall in each room, which is not seen in other tribes. The leader is the attributor of tribe ritual and social affairs. The position is passed down to the oldest son. The most representative music is pestle songs and tone.

In the past, they lived in Yiland. Now, they moved to Hualien and Taitung with a population of 1,258 (as to April 2011). Because they believe in all subjects have spirits, a specific ritual culture and cure ritual is derived. The cure ritual is held by the wizard, who will make a toast and then ask the spirit to come to cure diseases. During the curing process, the wizard must sing a specific song.

It has a population of 27,071 people (as to April 2011). About 3 or 4 hundred years ago, they crossed Chilai Mountain from the border of Nantou County. They overcame the nature barrier and moved east along Liwu Creek Valley. For hundreds of years, they have developed a tribe different from the origin. They have been through the longest Japanese battle and explored the future of the tribe. Besides hunting and weaving, Taroko tribe preserves the traditional blade smith and wizard. They hold ancestor spirit festival every year.

Mostly distribute in Chilai Plain, Hualien. It has a population of 569 people (as to April 2011). The economical industries are fishery and hunting. It is a matriarchal society as same as Amis that the men lived with their wives family. "Miamaivaki," rice giving by the elder, is a special tradition that the elders give blessing to the underage minors.

(Source: Council of Indigenous People, Executive Yuan)